This Salafee Imaam became well-known with the title ‘Ibn
Qayyim al-Jawziyyah’ because his father was the principal of the school
‘al-Jawziyyah’ in Damascus. As for his name, it is: Shams ud-Deen,
Abu Abdullaah, Muhammad bin Abu Bakr ibn Ayyoob az-Zar’ee (an ascription
to Azra’ which is in the south of Syria), then Dimashqee, Hanbalee.
He was born on the 7th of Safar in the year 691H
(1292 CE) and was raised in a house of knowledge and excellence and this offered
him the chance to take knowledge from the senior scholars of his time, at a time
when the various sciences (of knowledge) had flourished. He studied under
ash-Shihaab an-Naabilisee, Abu Bakr bin Abd ud-Daayim, al-Qaadee Taqee ud-Deen
Sulaimaan, Eesaa al-Mut’im, Faatimah bint Jawhar, Abu Nasr Muhammad bin
Imaad ud-Deen ash-Shairaazee, Ibn Maktoom, al-Bahaa’ bin Asaakir, Alaa
ud-Deen al-Kindee, Muhammad bin Abu al-Fath Ba’labkee, Ayyoob bin
al-Kamaal and al-Qaadee Badr ud-Deen bin Jamaa’ah.
He took the knowledge of the laws of inheritance from
Ismaa’eel bin Muhammad and read the Arabic language to Abu Fath
al-Ba’labkee and al-Majd at-Toonisee. He studied fiqh with a group of
scholars, amongst them Ismaa’eel bin Muhammad al-Harraanee. He took usool
(fundamental issues regarding creed etc.) from As-Safee al-Hindee. As for his
greatest teacher and his shaikh whom he accompanied for 17 years from the years
of his life, and who left the greatest impact upon him, then that is the Imaam,
the Mujaddid, Taqee ud-Deen Ibn Taymiyyah. He (Ibn al-Qayyim) took the same
methodology as him and traversed his path in waging war against the People of
Innovations and Desires and those who deviated from the religion.
As for his own students, then they are many. Amongst them, his
son Abdullaah, Ibn Katheer, the author of ‘al-Bidaayah
wan-Nihaayah’, and the Imaam and Haafidh, Abdur-Rahmaan bin Rajab
al-Baghdaadee, al-Hanbalee, the author of ‘Tabaqaat ul-Hanaabilah’,
and also Shams ud-Deen Muhammad bin Abdul-Qaadir an-Naabilisee.
Ibn al-Qayyim lived in a time in which there was strife and
internal confusion and chaos, as well as an external threat which was menacing
the Islamic state. For this reason, he used to order for the rejection of
separation and disunity and holding fast to the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of
His Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) . Amongst his goals was returning to the fountains of the
original (and pure) religion and purifying it from the innovations and desires.
So he called for the destruction of the madhhab of taqleed (blind-following) and
a return to the madhhab of the Salaf and traversing upon their way and
methodology. And because of this we see that he did not restrict himself to the
Hanbalee madhhab and often he would take the opinion and view of one of the
various madhhabs or perhaps he may have an opinion which conflicts the opinion
of all the other madhhabs. Therefore, his madhhab was ijtihaad and the rejection
of taqleed. As a result of this he incurred great harm and was imprisoned along
with his shaikh, Ibn Taymiyyah, in the same prison, but in isolation from him.
He was not released from the prison until after the death of the shaikh.
He took to teaching and giving verdict for a number of years
and (all) the people, without exception benefitted from him. The scholars also
testified to his knowledge and piety, Ibn Hajr said about him: "He had a
courageous heart, was vast in knowledge and was well acquainted with the
differences (of opinion) and the madhaahib of the Salaf."
Shaikh ul-Islaam, Muhammad bin Alee ash-Shawkaanee said:
"He restricted (himself) to the (most) authentic of evidences, and admired
acting upon them. He did not depend upon opinion (rai’), would overcome
(others) with the truth and would not be harsh with anyone with respect to
Ibn Katheer said: "He was attached to occupying himself
with knowledge, day and night. He would pray and recite the Qur’aan much
and was of excellent character, show great affection and friendship. He would
not be jealous or envious."
Ibn Katheer also said: "I do not know, in this time of
ours, anyone in the world who worships greater than him. He used to have a
particular manner with respect to the prayer. He would lengthen it a great deal,
would extend its bowing and prostrating. Many of his associates would censure
him at times but he would never return and leave alone this (action of his), may
Allaah have mercy upon him."
And Mullaa Alee al-Qaaree said: "And whoever investigates
the book Sharh Manaazil us-Saa’ireen (i.e. Madaarij us-Saalikeen), it will
become plain and clear to him that both of them (meaning Ibn al-Qayyim and Ibn
Taymiyyah) were amongst the most senior from Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah
and amonsgt the Awliyaah (of Allaah) of this Ummah."
Al-Haafidh as-Suyootee said: "And he became one of the
senior scholars in tafseer (exegesis), hadeeth, usool, furoo’ (subsidiary
matters) and Arabic language."
He authored and compiled in the field of fiqh , usool, siyar
(biography), history and the sciences of hadeeth. Alongside this, he was a
linguist, well-acquainted with grammar, and a poet. He had written much
He passed on to the mercy of His Lord at the latter time of
Ishaa, on the night of Thursday, 13th of Rajab in the year 751H (1350
CE) and was buried at the foot of Mount Qaasiyoon by Damascus, leaving behind
many written works, amongst the most famous of which are:
- Shifaa ul-Aleel
- Miftaah Daar us-Sa’aadah
- Zaad al-Ma’aad fee Hadyi Khair il-Ibaad
- Haadi ul-Arwaah ilaa Bilaad il-Afraah
- Ighaathatul-Lahafaan fee Hukm Talaaq al-Ghadbaan
- Al-Jawaab Kaafee liman Sa’ala an Dawaa ish-Shaafee
- Madaarij us-Saalikeen fee Manaazil is-Saa’ireen
- Tahdheeb Sunan Abee Daawood
- As-Sawaa’iq ul-Mursalah alal-Jahmiyyah wal-Mu’attilah
- Raf’ Yadain fis-Salaat
- Kitaab ul-Kabaa’ir
- Hukm Taarik us-Salaat
- Al-Kalim ut-Tayyib wal-Amal us-Saalih
- Sharh Asmaa il-Husnaa
- A’laam al-Muwaqqi’een an Rabbil-Aalameen.
May Allaah have mercy upon this great and notable Imaam,
benefit the world by him and elevate his position, rank after rank, in the